cerebrum, also known as the forebrain, is the largest part
of the human brain, and is located above the tentorium (a
fibrous membrane which separates the top and bottom of the
brain) in the vault of the skull. The cerebrum consists
of two portions, the diencephalon and the telencephalon.
The diencephalon consists of the portion
of the brain surrounding the third ventricle (fluid filled
cavity within the brain). Its major structures include
the thalamus and hypothalamus, subthalamus and epithalamus.
The thalamus functions as a relay station, modulating information
as it passes from one portion of the nervous system to another.
The hypothalamus is important for the control of endocrine,
metabolic, autonomic (controls digestion, constriction of
blood vessels, etc) and emotional function. The subthalamus
is involved in modulating involuntary movement. The
epithalamus consists of the pineal gland and habenular nuclei,
and is involved in the integration of somatic and olfactory
The telencephalon consists of the two cerebral
hemispheres, which contain a convoluted surface of gray matter
(cerebral cortex) and underlying white matter (fiber tracts
sending information to and from the cortex). The convoluted
surface consists of bumps or folds known as gyri, which are
separated by fissures called sulci.
In the deep portion of the cerebral hemisphere
is gray matter known as basal nuclei or basal ganglia.
The nuclei in this region are the amygdaloid nucleus, caudate
nucleus and lentiform nucleus. Additional structures
and connecting pathways in this region are the claustrum and